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On Friday, the Pakistan Telecommunications Authority, the countryx27s telecom regulator, ordered Internet service providers”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_5”: { “text”: “Pakistan”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 1514, “endchar”: 1521, “start”: 1514, “end”: 1521, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “PLACE”, “predictionProbability”: “0.991286”, “weight”: 0.972415, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “Authority, the countryx27s telecom regulator, ordered Internet service providers in Pakistan to block access to a YouTube video — a trailer for”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_6”: { “text”: “Koran”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 1610, “endchar”: 1614, “start”: 1610, “end”: 1614, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “”, “predictionProbability”: “0”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/other/book”], “category”: [“OTHER”], “context”: “YouTube video — a trailer for a controversial film about the Koran being made by Dutch politician Geert Wilders. A statement from” }, “lw_1204174496_7”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2506, “endchar”: 2512, “start”: 2506, “end”: 2512, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.641542”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/domain”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “least one ISP leaked into the Internet, causing traffic to YouTube to be directed into a kind of Web cul-de-sac in”, “metaData”: { “domain_name”: “YouTube “, “domain_url”: “http://www.youtube.com/” } }, “lw_1204174496_8”: { “text”: “Pakistan”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2566, “endchar”: 2573, “start”: 2566, “end”: 2573, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “PLACE”, “predictionProbability”: “0.987604”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “to be directed into a kind of Web cul-de-sac in Pakistan. A YouTube statement e-mailed to United Press International confirmed the”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_9”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2587, “endchar”: 2593, “start”: 2587, “end”: 2593, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.97192”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/domain”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “directed into a kind of Web cul-de-sac in Pakistan. A YouTube statement e-mailed to United Press International confirmed the cause of”, “metaData”: { “domain_name”: “YouTube “, “domain_url”: “http://www.youtube.com/” } }, “lw_1204174496_10”: { “text”: “Pakistan”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2713, “endchar”: 2720, “start”: 2713, “end”: 2720, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “PLACE”, “predictionProbability”: “0.990944”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “cause of the outage, and that it had originated in Pakistan. x22Traffic to YouTube was routed according to erroneous Internet protocols”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_11”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2750, “endchar”: 2756, “start”: 2750, “end”: 2756, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.759845”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/doma
in”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “outage, and that it had originated in Pakistan. x22Traffic to YouTube was routed according to erroneous Internet protocols, and many users”, “metaData”: { “domain_name”: “YouTube “, “domain_url”: “http://www.youtube.com/” } }, “lw_1204174496_12”: { “text”: “Pakistan”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 2992, “endchar”: 2999, “start”: 2992, “end”: 2999, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “PLACE”, “predictionProbability”: “0.994712”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “that the source of these events was a network in Pakistan,x22 the statement continued. x22We are investigating and working with others”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_13”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 3939, “endchar”: 3945, “start”: 3939, “end”: 3945, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.734282”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/domain”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “to Internet addresses their users want to visit. To block YouTube, said Daniel Castro of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation”, “metaData”: { “domain_name”: “YouTube “, “domain_url”: “http://www.youtube.com/” } }, “lw_1204174496_14”: { “text”: “Pakistan”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 4037, “endchar”: 4044, “start”: 4037, “end”: 4044, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “PLACE”, “predictionProbability”: “0.98608”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “Castro of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, one ISP, Pakistan Telecommunication Corp. Ltd., essentially placed false information in its BGP”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “876758”, “geoCountry”: “Pakistan”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “PK”, “geoLocation”: “(69.359703, 30.441851)”, “geoName”: “Pakistan”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/pk/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_15”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 4177, “endchar”: 4183, “start”: 4177, “end”: 4183, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.806031”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/domain”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “information in its BGP tables, diverting customers trying to access YouTube into a kind of Internet dead end. 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shortcuts:/us/instance/place/destination”, “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/th/country”], “category”: [“PLACE”], “context”: “Turkey, but also Brazil, China, Iran, Morocco, Myanmar, Syria and Thailand in the last few years. x22We see this as in”, “metaData”: { “geoArea”: “516894”, “geoCountry”: “Thailand”, “geoIsoCountryCode”: “TH”, “geoLocation”: “(101.4925, 13.03659)”, “geoName”: “Thailand”, “geoPlaceType”: “Country”, “type”: “shortcuts:/us/instance/place/th/country” } }, “lw_1204174496_24”: { “text”: “YouTube”, “extended”: 0, “startchar”: 5681, “endchar”: 5687, “start”: 5681, “end”: 5687, “extendedFrom”: “”, “predictedCategory”: “ORGANIZATION”, “predictionProbability”: “0.48029”, “weight”: 0.35, “type”: [“shortcuts:/us/instance/organization/domain”], “category”: [“ORGANIZATION”], “context”: “for intolerance, murder and terror,x22 he said recently. 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Analysis: How Pakistan crashed YouTube

Published: Feb. 26, 2008 at 11:51 AM

By SHAUN WATERMAN
http://www.upi. com/Internationa l_Security/ Emerging_ Threats/Analysis /2008/02/
26/analysis_ how_pakistan_ crashed_youtube/ 2204/print_ view/
UPI Homeland and National Security Editor
WASHINGTON, Feb. 26 (UPI) — Pakistani authorities’ efforts to block access
to the video-sharing Web site YouTube from Internet addresses in their own
country effectively shut down the site altogether at the weekend, disrupting
access to it by would-be visitors from all over the world.

The outage, which appears to have been the result of an error, blocked
traffic to the site for about two hours Sunday, and experts say it
demonstrates the fragile quality of the Internet, which is a network based
largely on trust.

On Friday, the Pakistan Telecommunications Authority, the country’s telecom
regulator, ordered Internet service providers in Pakistan to block access to
a YouTube video — a trailer for a controversial film about the Koran being
made by Dutch politician Geert Wilders.

A statement from the authority said the decision was taken following a
meeting of senior officials from several Pakistani ministries, including
telecommunications, information and broadcasting, interior and religious
affairs.

The statement called the trailer “highly provocative and blasphemous, ”
adding that it “absolutely stands against the values of religious tolerance
and peaceful coexistence” and was “arousing deep anguish and distress across
the Muslim world.”

The authority had blocked the site, the statement concluded, to forestall
“more unrest and possible loss of life and property across the country.”

But experts say the method used to block the site by at least one ISP leaked
into the Internet, causing traffic to YouTube to be directed into a kind of
Web cul-de-sac in Pakistan.

A YouTube statement e-mailed to United Press International confirmed the
cause of the outage, and that it had originated in Pakistan.

“Traffic to YouTube was routed according to erroneous Internet protocols,
and many users around the world could not access our site,” read the
statement.

“We have determined that the source of these events was a network in
Pakistan,” the statement continued. “We are investigating and working with
others in the Internet community to prevent this from happening again.”

Marcus Sachs, director of the Internet Storm Center run by the non-profit
SANS Institute, told UPI the outage was a byproduct of the open architecture
of the Internet and the way in which Web traffic is routed from server to
server.

“This looks like a mistake by a router engineer,” said Sachs, saying the
error occurred when a “local announcement to computers using one ISP .
leaked out somehow and was propagated across the Internet generally.”

The announcement was in the form of routing information provided under the
so-called Border Gateway Protocol. BGP tables, Sachs said, provide
information to computers about how to connect to Internet addresses their
users want to visit.

To block YouTube, said Daniel Castro of the Information Technology and
Innovation Foundation, one ISP, Pakistan Telecommunication Corp. Ltd.,
essentially placed false information in its BGP tables, diverting customers
trying to access YouTube into a kind of Internet dead end.

But the false routing information was picked up by a large
telecommunications company that provides network services to PCTL and
distributed around the Internet.

“This has happened before,” said Castro, adding, “Usually it doesn’t happen
because usually you don’t have a major ISP deliberately putting false
information out there.”

“The Internet only works,” said Sachs, “because of the enormous amount of
trust involved.” He added that there were security implications.

“Imagine if this had happened to a bank or a utility provider or any other
Web site providing a critical service,” he said.

Castro noted: “We’ve seen a pattern of other countries blocking YouTube,”
most recently Turkey, but also Brazil, China, Iran, Morocco, Myanmar, Syria
and Thailand in the last few years.

“We see this as in some ways a free-trade issue,” said Castro. “If you are
blocking this service (from users in your country) effectively you are
giving preferences to other (Web sites providing the same) service.”

Wilders’ 10-minute film, titled “Fitna” (“Ordeal” in Arabic), which he plans
to release next month, will show how the Muslim holy book “is an inspiration
for intolerance, murder and terror,” he said recently.

By Monday, YouTube had removed the video trailer, saying it had violated the
site’s terms of use, which include a prohibition on “hate speech,” defined
as “speech which attacks or demeans a group based on race or ethnic origin,
religion, disability, gender, age, veteran status, and sexual
orientation/ gender identity.”

A YouTube spokesman did not respond to a request for an interview, and the
company has in the past said it would not comment about the decision to
remove material for terms of use violations.

Anonymous officials from the Pakistan Telecommunications Authority told
several news outlets they had also cut off access to other Web sites showing
the controversial Danish newspaper cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad. They
were originally printed in 2006 but were reprinted by some European
newspapers last week.

 

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